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信仰与道路的抉择:中国马克思主义与无政府主义论战研究

王烨

马克思主义 发展 研究 中国 无政府主义 政治思想史 近现代

2017-12-01

978-7-5203-2479-3

18次

260页

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内容简介

本书作者认为,中国马克思主义与无政府主义的论战,是近代中国社会主义思潮发展史上一次重大的思想论战,是五四时期三大论战中影响最广、持续时间最长的一次论战,它为中国社会主义革命运动指明了发展方向。从此,中国社会主义思潮从无政府主义转向了马克思列宁主义,走上了俄国式的革命道路。论战也是中国无政府主义和马克思主义各自发展道路上的一个关键事件,对双方的发展都产生了深远影响。论战明确区分了两种不同的社会革命理论;扩大了双方各自的影响,使马克思主义运动和无政府主义运动进一步活跃,也使社会主义革命阵营内部发生人员分化重组。这次论战是无政府主义发展史上的一场由盛转衰的论战,更是马克思主义在中国得以广泛传播的新起点。它使中国革命从五四新文化运动时期的“思想革命”转向了苏俄十月革命影响下的现实“政治革命”,既帮助马克思主义者与无政府主义划清理论界线,完成向马克思主义的转变,推动早期中国共产党组织的建立,又使得无政府主义阵营内部分化,帮助部分无政府主义者实现了从理论传播到现实革命的转型。

Thecontroversy between Marxism and Anarchism in China is a major ideological debate on the development of socialist ideological trend in modern China.This paper tries to put the two socialist ideological trends under the background of China’s new-democratic revolution,examining how they are affecting alternately the process of Chinese revolution. Astwo socialist ideological trends,the Anarchism and the Marxism were both introduced into China in the early 20th century. From 1900 or so to 1907,with all kinds of western ideological trends pouring into China,the socialist thoughts were warmly welcomed by the progressive intellectuals and the revolu-tionaries as a new ideological trend of revolution against the feudal autocracy at that time,then was widely advertised and introduced,among which there were the Marxism and the Anarchism; but they were only introduced and publicized as a theory failing in forming any movements or faith. In 1907,influenced by domestic and international factors,the socialist ideological trend in China began to swing to the Anarchism.From 1907 to the eve of theoretical controversy between Marxism and Anarchism,the spread of Anarchism gave priority to the socialism movements in China.During this period,the Anarchism was considered as the representative thought of the socialist ideological trend,which bred the Anarchism genres of“Days”,“New Age”and“Shi Fu”followed by the Anarchist movements. Affected by the second international Democratic Socialism,Marxism was not accepted by the revolutionaries in all nations,hence hardly affected China.Chinese Anarchists had done much work in enlightenment,pub-licity and class-consciousness cultivation and launching civilian-and-worker campaigns and so on,which made necessary preparations for the New Culture Movement,the May 4th Movement and the Marxist Movement.The victory of the OctoberRevolution in Russia in 1917 and the outbreak of the May 4th Movement in China in 1919 started a new campaign of socialism in China again. With the help of the Communist International and Russian bolsheviks,Marxism,silents for years,took the fighting form of Leninism theory and stimulated the Chinese revolutionary activists again and prompted communist organizations and movements in China.Concerning the needs of realistic revolutions and their own developments,Chinese Anarchism and Russian bolsheviks conducted“Cooperation between Anarchism and Bolshevism”. Chinese Marxists and Anarchists had also maintained mutually supportive for each other. The Communist International and revolutionary messagers from Russia made a series of activities to spread Bolshevism in China,jointly established the revolutionary“Socialist Alliance”and helped the Communist groups found their organizations and directed the cooperative revolution movements. In the process of cooperation,however,there appeared theoretical disagreements between the Marxism and the Anarchism,particularly tit for tat on such issues like the organizational principles of the party construction and the dictatorship of the proletariat. The debate inevitably happened between Chinese Anarchists and the Chinese Marxists.The two sides had thorough discussions and debates on some major issues. With great theoretical selfconfidence,each side tried to refute or persuade the other one,but ended with no agreement. The“Socialist Alliance”were dissolved worldwidely owing to the devotional and theoretical dis-putes. Yet separate Marxists and independent Anarchists then continued to keep contact and cooperated over a period of time. All of the above facts rendered the complex relationship between the Marxism and the Anarchist in controversial period. Theclash process of Chinese Marxism and Anarchism is roughly divided into four stages:the prelude,the start,the climax,and the continuation. The prelude and starting of the debate is a controversy about“the Axiom Against the Power”in May and June,1920.The thesis,On politics,which was published by Chen Tu-hsiu in September 1920,triggered a direct confrontation between the Marxists and the Anarchists.Both sides discussed and expressed their views on“Nation,Politics and Law”,and posed some important problems like“Chinese anarchist”. They reached consensus partly and kept some principle differences. The climax of controversy occurred in early 1921 when Chen Tu-hsiu delivered a speech on the criticism of“Socialism”in Guangzhou Public Law School.His speech caused a district backlash among Anarchists.Chen Tu-hsiu and Sinpak Au,a famous Ananchist,launched a series of related debates on“Freedom”,“Law”and other topics. From then on,Chinese Marxists and Anarchists continued to clash in European countries,focusing on questions like“whether Russian revolution has failed?” or“how to treat the Marxism”,etc. Thecontroversy between Chinese Marxism and Anarchism was the longest,the most widespread and the most affecting one among the three big debates at that time in China,figuring out the development direction for Chinese socialist revolution movement. Since then Chinese Socialist Ideological trend shifted from the Anarchy to the Marxism-Leninism with Chinese revolutions stepping into the Russian revolutionary road. This controversy even prompted Sun Yat-sen to accept the ideas of the Communist International and the Communist Party of Russia,and put forward the New Three Principles of the People,namely Alliance with Russia,the CCP and Assisting the Peasants and Workers.It was also a critical incident on the path of the development of the Chinese Anarchism and Marxism,which had a profound impact on the development of both sides. The debate made a clear distinction between the two different social-revolutionary theories and expanded influences for both sides,which activated the Marxism movements and Anarchist movements further. It also differentiated revolutionaries among the socialist members. It was more a new starting point of spreading Marxism in China than a controversy of changing from flourish to decadence of Anarchism in its development history. It was also the turning point for the Chinese revolution to change from the“ideological revolution”,which occurred during May 4th New Culture Movement Period,to the realistic“political revolution”influenced by the Russian October Revolution.The controversy not only helped the Marxists draw the boundaries between the Marxism and the Anarchism theories,completed the shift towards Marxism and promoted the process of the foun-ding of the CPC,but also made the Anarchism differentiation in camp and helped quite a number of anarchists realize the transition from the theory transmissions to real revolutions. Key words:Chinese Marxism; Anarchism; socialism; controversy; Cooperation between Anarchism and Bolshevism.(AI翻译)

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